Paper: ETS: Domain Adaptation and Stacking for Short Answer Scoring

ACL ID S13-2046
Title ETS: Domain Adaptation and Stacking for Short Answer Scoring
Venue Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics
Session
Year 2013
Authors

Automatic scoring of short text responses to educational assessment items is a challeng- ing task, particularly because large amounts of labeled data (i.e., human-scored responses) may or may not be available due to the va- riety of possible questions and topics. As such, it seems desirable to integrate various approaches, making use of model answers from experts (e.g., to give higher scores to responses that are similar), prescored student responses (e.g., to learn direct associations between particular phrases and scores), etc. Here, we describe a system that uses stack- ing (Wolpert, 1992) and domain adaptation (Daume III, 2007) to achieve this aim, allow- ing us to integrate item-specific n-gram fea- tures and more general text similarity mea- sures (Heilman and Madnani, 2012). We re- ...