Paper: Generating Expressions that Refer to Visible Objects

ACL ID N13-1137
Title Generating Expressions that Refer to Visible Objects
Venue Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Session Main Conference
Year 2013

We introduce a novel algorithm for generat- ing referring expressions, informed by human and computer vision and designed to refer to visible objects. Our method separates abso- lute properties like color from relative proper- ties like size to stochastically generate a di- verse set of outputs. Expressions generated using this method are often overspecified and may be underspecified, akin to expressions produced by people. We call such expressions identifying descriptions. The algorithm out- performs the well-known Incremental Algo- rithm (Dale and Reiter, 1995) and the Graph- Based Algorithm (Krahmer et al., 2003; Vi- ethen et al., 2008) across a variety of images in two domains. We additionally motivate an evaluation method for referring expression generation that takes the proposed alg...