Paper: Confmnation in Multimodal Systems

ACL ID C98-2131
Title Confmnation in Multimodal Systems
Venue International Conference on Computational Linguistics
Session Main Conference
Year 1998

Systems that attempt to understand natural human input make nfistakes, even humans. However, humans avoid misunderstandings by confirming doubtful input. Multimodal systems--those that combine simultaneous input from more than one modality, for example speech and gesture----have historically been designed so that they either request confirmation of speech, their primary modality, or not at all. Instead, we experimented with delaying confn-rnation until after the speech and gesture were combined into a complete multimodal command. In controlled experiments, subjects achieved more commands per minute at a lower error rate when the system delayed confirmation, than compared to when subjects confirmed only speech. In addition, this style of late confirmation rreets the user's ex...